Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases Is Increased Even with Mild Diabetic Retinopathy: The Japan Diabetes Complications Study

Objective: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is linked to cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. This study examined whether mild-stage DR is associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in type 2 diabetic patients of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS). Design: Prospective cohort study. Participants: In the JDCS, there were 2033 Japanese persons with type 2 diabetes free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Methods: Diabetic retinopathy was ascertained from clinical and photographic grading (70%) following the international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Incident CHD (Read more...)

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