Author: Am J Ophthalmol

Spinoza as an Optician

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), famous as a philosopher and pillar of the rational Enlightenment, for many years actually earned his living as a maker of telescopic lenses. He was knowledgeable about all the contemporary ideas about the physics of light an…

In Vitro Susceptibility of Filamentous Fungal Isolates From a Corneal Ulcer Clinical Trial

Purpose: To describe the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal isolates to natamycin and voriconazole, and to compare these MICs to previous ocular susceptibility studies.Design: Experimental laboratory study using isolates from a randomized clinical trial.Methods: The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I was a randomized, double-masked, multicenter trial comparing topical natamycin and voriconazole for fungal keratitis treatment. Susceptibility testing to natamycin and voriconazole were performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. The relationship between organism and MIC was assessed. A literature review was performed to compare results to previous ocular susceptibility studies.Results: Of the 323 patients enrolled in the (Read more...)

In Vivo Imaging of Cortical Vitreous Using 1050-nm Swept-Source Deep Range Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

Purpose: To image the cortical vitreous, determine the prevalence of the bursa premacularis and space of Martegiani, and measure the dimensions of the bursa using the new 1050-nm swept-source deep range imaging optical coherence tomography (DRI OCT-1 Atlantis).Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study.Methods: One hundred and nineteen consecutive patients (5-100 years) underwent an OCT scan using 1050-nm swept-source deep range imaging optical coherence tomography. Prevalence of the bursa premacularis and space of Martegiani and the stage of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) were determined. The horizontal (width) and anteroposterior (depth) dimensions of the bursa were recorded along with the patient’s age.Results: A bursa (Read more...)

Alcohol Use and Positive Screening Results for Depression and Anxiety Are Highly Prevalent among Chinese Children with Strabismus – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To study associations between strabismus and alcohol use, anxiety and depression among 10-17-year-old children in Guangdong, southern China.Design: Cross-sectional, population-based studyMethods: Among 7537 children aged 6 to 17 years from 9 randomly-selected primary and middle schools, ocular alignment was assessed with the Hirschberg light reflex, cover-uncover testing, and alternate cover testing at distance (6 m) and near (40cm). Additionally, 4000 children (53.1%) aged 10+ years received self-administered questionnaires containing screening questions on alcohol use, anxiety and depression.Results: Examinations were completed on 7,464 of 7,537 subjects (99.0%), including 3,928 (52.6%) boys, with a mean age of 11.1±1.8 years. The (Read more...)

Spontaneous resolution of vitreomacular traction demonstrated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the natural course of idiopathic vitreomacular traction (VMT) with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) from the vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) stage to the spontaneous resolution of VMT.Design: Prospective observational case series.Methods: We studied the natural course of idiopathic VMT in 46 eyes (46 patients) divided into those that proceeded to spontaneous VMT resolution (12 cases) and those that remained at the VMT stage (34 cases). All patients were examined with SDOCT at regular three-monthly intervals. We recorded the vitreomacular angle of VMA nasally and temporally, the horizontal diameter of VMA, macular thickness, visual acuity, photoreceptor layer, and (Read more...)

Multiple subretinal fluid blebs after successful retinal detachment surgery: Incidence, risk factors, and presumed pathophysiology – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the incidence and the clinical factors associated with the occurrence of multiple subretinal fluid (SRF) blebs after successful rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) repair.Design: Retrospective, observational case seriesMethods: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 185 eyes of 184 patients who had undergone successful RD surgery either vitrectomy or scleral buckling. Each patient had undergone spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with infrared reflectance (IR) imaging every 3 months postoperatively. We carefully examined postoperative SD-OCT and fundus IR images, in an effort to identify any SRF blebs present.Results: Multiple (≥3) SRF blebs were observed in 40 (Read more...)

Topical Rebamipide Treatment for Superior Limbic Keratoconjunctivitis in Patients with Thyroid Eye Disease – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate efficacy of topical rebamipide for superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED).Design: A retrospective, observational case series.Methods: Thirty-three eyes from 20 TED patients with SLK who received topical rebamipide [Mucosta® ophthalmic suspension unit dose 2%; chemical name, (2RS)-2-(4-chlorobenzoylamino)-3-(2-oxo-1, 2-dihydroquinolin-4-yl) propanoic acid] were included. The following items were evaluated before and 4 weeks after the start of treatments: presence or absence of SLK, rose bengal staining score, AD classification (A, area; D, density) of fluorescein staining, Schirmer’s test I (without topical anesthesia), tear break-up time (TBUT), Hertel exophthalmometry values, and margin reflex distances-1 (Read more...)

Endophthalmitis Caused by Streptococcal Species: Clinical Settings, Microbiology, Management, and Outcomes – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To report the clinical settings, antibiotic susceptibilities, and outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species.Study Design: Retrospective, observational case series.Methods: Single-center study evaluating all patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011.Results: Study criteria were met by 63 patients. The most common clinical settings were bleb-associated (17, 27%), post-intravitreal injection (16, 25%), and post-cataract surgery (13, 21%). The isolates were S. viridans (47, 71%), S. pneumoniae (13, 21%), and β-hemolytic Streptococci (5, 8%). Sixty (95%) of 63 isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, 47 (98%) of 48 to ceftriaxone (third generation (Read more...)

Dry Eye Exacerbation in Patients Exposed to Desiccating Stress under Controlled Environmental Conditions – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To determine if controlled environmental conditions can induce acute exacerbations of signs and symptoms in dry eye and asymptomatic subjects.Design: Prospective cross-sectional study.Methods: Nineteen patients with dry eye and 20 asymptomatic controls were exposed to controlled low humidity (5% relative humidity, desiccating environment) for 2 hours in our Controlled Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Valladolid. The patients completed the Single-Item Score Dry Eye Questionnaire and the following diagnostic tests were performed before and after exposure: tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, conjunctival hyperemia, fluorescein tear-break-up time (T-BUT), Schirmer test, and ocular surface vital staining. Sixteen molecules (Read more...)

Measurement of Scleral Thickness using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients with Myopia – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To use swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image the posterior sclera at the posterior pole and around the optic nerve head (ONH), and measure the subfoveal scleral thickness and laminar thickness to evaluate the relationship between the measured thicknesses and ocular parameters.Design: Prospective, cross-sectional design.Methods: One hundred and twelve glaucoma patients and 46 controls with axial length more than 26 mm were enrolled. Swept-source OCT images were obtained to capture the subfoveal and ONH region. Subfoveal scleral thickness and laminar thickness were measured from obtained B-scan images. To verify the reproducibility of the measurement, intraclass correlation coefficients (Read more...)

Assessment of choroidal topographic changes by swept source optical coherence tomography after photodynamic therapy for central serous chorioretinopathy – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between choroidal thickness and angiographic abnormalities in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) eyes by swept-source optical coherence tomography (Swept-OCT), before and after half-fluence photody…

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus placebo to reduce the risk of recurrences of toxoplasma gondii retinochoroiditis: randomized controlled clinical trial – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To compare the effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus placebo in reducing the risk of recurrences of toxoplasma gondii retinochoroiditis.Design: Single-center, prospective randomized, double-masked, clinical trial.Methods: A…

Corneal biomechanics as a function of intraocular pressure and pachymetry by Dynamic Infrared Signal and Scheimpflug Imaging Analysis in normal eyes – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical deformation response using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and Corvis ST data.Design: Prospective Observational case control studyMethods: 1262 eyes of 795 patients were enrolled. 3 groups were established, according to the corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), group I (10-13mmHg), group II (14-17mmHg), and group III (18-21mmHg). Each group included 3 subgroups, based on central corneal thickness (CCT), subgroup 1 (465-510㎛), 2 (510-555㎛), and 3 (555-600㎛). In addition, similar groups of CCT were divided into subgroups of IOPcc. Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were derived from ORA. The parameters of highest concavity with (Read more...)

Dry Eye in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Health-Related Quality of Life – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Purpose: To estimate dry eye prevalence in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), including a young adult population, and investigate associated risk factors and impact on health-related quality of life.Design: Cohort study.Methods: The BOSS (2005-2008) is a study of aging in the adult offspring of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Questionnaire data on health history, medication use, risk factors, and quality of life were available for 3275 participants. Dry eye was determined by self-report of frequency of symptoms and the intensity of those symptoms. Associations between dry eye and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression.Results: (Read more...)